The formation of new genes by combining parts of existing genes is an important evolutionary process. Remodelled genes, which we call composites, have been investigated in many species, however, their distribution across all of life is still unknown. We set out to examine the extent to which genomes from cells and mobile genetic elements contain composite genes. We identify composite genes as those that show partial homology to at least two unrelated component genes. In order to identify composite and component genes, we constructed sequence similarity networks (SSNs) of more than one million genes from all three domains of life, as well as viruses and plasmids. We identified non-transitive triplets of nodes in this network and explored the homology relationships in these triplets to see if the middle nodes were indeed composite genes. In total, we identified 221,043 (18.57%) composites genes, which were distributed across all genomic and functional categories. In particular, the presence of composite genes is statistically more likely in eukaryotes than prokaryotes.
Eukaryote Genes Are More Likely than Prokaryote Genes to Be Composites
Y Ou, JO McInerney. Genes, 10(9), 648 2019.